Canada's new Prime Minister Justin Trudeau pledged to bring in 25,000 Syrians within a matter of months, but it's not just his government that's handling the massive task of resettling the refugees.
Across Canada, churches, communities and businesses are all pitching in, as are many individuals, who are privately sponsoring Syrian families and covering most of their needs for the first year.
Since Nov. 4, Canada has accepted 1,608 Syrian refugees. By comparison, the U.S. has accepted 2,547 Syrian refugees since that country's civil war began in 2011, according to State Department figures.
Janet Howitt is part of a church group in Kitchener, Ontario, that is sponsoring a Syrian family of five who fled their home in Aleppo because of the war. The family spent three years in Lebanon before flying to Canada two months ago.
"For their first year in Canada, you are responsible for all of their living expenses, for settling them, if you will, orientation support, for helping them get into school or into work, supporting them in every way," Howitt explains.
In her case, that responsibility began with picking up the Syrian family from the Toronto airport.
"We had a sign that said 'Welcome' in English and Arabic, and their names," Howitt says. "You could just visibly see their body posture change a bit, lift up a little bit, smile, you know, you're here, somebody is here."
The woman in the Syrian family says she was filled with doubt during the trip from Lebanon.
"All the way in the airplane, I was blaming my husband, asking him why did we do this, we don't know where we are going and we have these small children," says the woman, who asked that NPR not use her name or take photos because she's scared for relatives still in Syria. "We don't know what is waiting for us in Canada."
The Syrian family now lives in Kitchener, about 90 miles west of Toronto. "For us, every day is new people, new values and new learning ... it's amazing," the woman says. "I am so happy here and feel like I want to encourage everyone to come to Canada who is now a refugee and seeking a safe place."
Their modest, two-bedroom, ground-floor apartment is paid for by Howitt's church group. The Canadian government provides the refugees with health care, transportation and English lessons for their first year in the country.
Canada's private sponsorship program was created in the late 1970s, when the country resettled 60,000 refugees from Vietnam and other Southeast Asian nations.
Although recent attacks in the U.S. have made Syrian resettlement a hot security issue, in Canada, Trudeau's government was elected on assurances that it could resettle refugees safely. The government says there are several rounds of screening before a refugee boards a plane.
Lifeline Syria, a nonprofit that helps resettle privately sponsored refugees in Canada, was created in June with the goal of bringing in 1,000 Syrians in two years.
The number of Canadians contacting Lifeline Syria and offering to help has only increased since September, when a photo appeared in news outlets across the world of a lifeless 3-year-old Syrian boy who had washed up on a Turkish beach. The family of the boy, Alan Kurdi, had applied — and was turned down — for Canadian asylum.
"I remember when the photo came out, I was in a board meeting and I started to get all these emails," says Alexandra Kotyk, Lifeline Syria's project director. "And I started talking to my staff and they said the phones [were] ringing off the hook. We think we got 1,400 emails in two days of people just saying, 'How can I help?' "
Brad Watson and Rachel D'Aguilar, part of a neighborhood association in Kitchener that is sponsoring refugees, were among those who wanted to help after seeing the picture of the boy. Watson says he was also motivated because he felt the previous Canadian government, under Prime Minister Stephen Harper, wasn't doing enough to help.
"It was like, 'Well, if our government won't do it, then we will,'" Watson says. "This seemed very clear, this seems like the right thing to do and we'll do it."
Their neighborhood association has raised more than the minimum of $25,000 that the government requires of sponsors, and furniture and clothing donations have poured in. D'Aguilar says she's running from one meeting to the next in preparation for the refugee family's arrival.
D'Aguilar says they're putting together a handbook in Arabic with information including local bus routes and how to set the thermostat in their new home.
Rick Cober Bauman, the executive director of the Mennonite Central Committee in Ontario, which helps resettle refugees, says the job is easier because the federal government is providing resources.
"It couldn't be driven by a government target alone," he says. "It needs to have many, many communities who are willingly and joyfully stepping up and saying, 'We want to be part of making it happen.'"
Thousands of Canadians have signed up to privately sponsor the Syrians via everything from PTAs to dog-walking groups. Major companies also want to take part.
On a recent weekday afternoon, a couple of dozen lawyers from all kinds of practices gathered on the 30th floor of an office tower in downtown Toronto. They were there to learn from immigration lawyer Jackie Swaizland about the most basic step in refugee cases — how to fill out a permanent residency status application form.
Swaizland and a colleague created these training sessions a couple of months ago, and soon were flooded with calls from lawyers across the country volunteering to work pro bono.
"We went from about 110 lawyers to almost 1,000 that we have today," she says.
Air Canada offered to help fly the Syrians from camps in Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey. Meanwhile, Canadian doctors are organizing health clinics in hospitals and other health facilities.
Mario Calla, the director of Costi, a nonprofit organization contracted by the Canadian government to help resettle refugees, says he's never seen such an outpouring of help in the 28 years he's been working with refugees.
The biggest challenge is housing, he says. There was concern when the government initially said it wanted all 25,000 Syrian refugees resettled by the end of December.
Calla says there were plans to house the refugees at military bases and on cruise ships. But now that the government has extended the deadline to the end of February, local refugee centers will be able to absorb the newcomers.
Cober Bauman, with the Mennonite Central Committee, says overall, Canadians are supportive. But it's not a unanimous sentiment.
"There are also lots of people struggling on the margins economically in Canada who have to be asking why [there is] this groundswell of support for someone we don't know, when there are many people struggling literally in [our] neighborhoods and in our own communities," he says.
ROBERT SIEGEL, HOST:
Canada's newly elected government faces a challenge - how to fulfill a promise to resettle 25,000 Syrian refugees in a matter of months. The campaign pledge helped put Justin Trudeau into the prime minister's office. But resettling so many refugees isn't something the government is doing alone. As NPR's Jackie Northam reports from Toronto, it depends on the Canadian people who are stepping forward to help.
JACKIE NORTHAM, BYLINE: On a recent weekday afternoon, a couple dozen lawyers from all kinds of practices gathered on the 30th floor of an office tower in downtown Toronto. They were there to learn from immigration lawyer Jackie Swaisland how to do the most basic step in refugee cases - fill out an application form.
JACKIE SWAISLAND: So I'll dive right into the actual crux of the application, which is the narrative, OK? So what we're looking to get out of the narrative is basically, what was it that caused that person or that family to leave Syria at the time that they left?
NORTHAM: Swaisland has been running these training session for a couple of months in a program that she and another lawyer created to help resettle Syrian refugees in Canada. They initially approached a few lawyers to work on a pro bono basis. But then word got out, and they were flooded with calls from lawyers across the country.
SWAISLAND: So we went from about 110 lawyers across the country to almost a thousand that we have today. In about two-and-a-half months, we've been able to do that.
NORTHAM: Swaizland's program will help the Canadian government to bring in 25,000 Syrian refugees by the end of February. Across Canada, churches, communities and businesses are pitching in. Rick Cober Bauman is the executive director of the Mennonite Central Committee in Ontario which helps resettle refugees.
RICK COBER BAUMAN: Certainly, it couldn't be driven by a government target alone. It needs to have many, many communities who are willingly and joyfully stepping up and saying, we want this to happen, and we want to be part of making it happen.
NORTHAM: And Canadians are stepping up to help the effort to resettle the Syrian refugees. The airlines offer to fly the Syrians from camps in Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey. Doctors are organizing health clinics. Groups and individuals are offering to sponsor refugees for a year. People are donating money, furniture and clothing.
MARIO CALLA: This woman called us up, and she said she knits.
NORTHAM: Mario Calla heads up COSTI, a nonprofit organization contracted by the Canadian government to help resettle refugees. He had just received 100 knitted hats donated for Syrian children.
CALLA: Beautiful, colorful, nice patterns.
NORTHAM: Calla says he's never seen such an outpouring of help in the 28 years he's been dealing with refugees. He says 25,000 may seem like a lot to many Canadians, but it's nothing like the numbers crossing into Europe this year.
CALLA: It's not an emergency for us, you know? It may be an emergency in Austria, in Germany, where they're looking at maybe 800,000 this year that they have no control over. Our government has control over how many arrive here, and it's done in a planful (ph) way.
NORTHAM: Calla says the biggest issue facing a large influx of refugees is housing.
NORTHAM: A cafeteria worker dishes out mushroom soup, sausages and potatoes for refugees staying at a small refugee center. For years, immigrants have passed through this plain, three-story building on the edge of a residential neighborhood of Toronto. Calla says it usually takes a couple of weeks to find permanent housing. The government also provides financial aid, free health care and English lessons. Overall, people are supportive, but some have objected to the attention the Syrians are getting - Cober Bauman with the Mennonite Central Committee again.
COBER BAUMAN: There are also lots of people struggling on the margins economically in Canada who have to be asking - and some of them are asking openly - why this groundswell of support for someone that we don't know when there are many people struggling, literally, in our neighborhoods and in our own communities.
NORTHAM: And some have expressed concerns, like in the U.S., about whether the refugees represent a security threat. The government says there are several rounds of screening before any refugee gets on a plane and that the country will fulfill its pledge to have all of them here in Canada by the end of February. Jackie Northam, NPR News, Toronto. Transcript provided by NPR, Copyright NPR.